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40- Kulesza, Joanna, State responsibility for acts of cyber‐terrorism, UNIVERSITY OF LODZ GigaNet Symposium ,Vilnius, September 13, 2010.
41- Knut Dormann , Computer network attack and international humanitarian law,Article,p:1 ,Para. 5, Extracted from the web site of International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in Decembed 8, 2007.
42- Kostadinov, Dimitar, “Attribution in Cyber Attacks”,2015.
43- Leyden, John, “Israel suspected of ‘hacking’ Syrian air defenses”, Posted in Enterprise Security, 2007.
44-Legal Consequences of the Construction of Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, ICJ Reports , 2004.
45- Ranter. Steven and Jason s. Abrhams , Abrams , Accountability for Human Rights Atrocities in International Law ,j.INT.” L.L, 1997.
46- Rivard, Catherine, RossiT Michael, Is Computer Data “Tangible Property” or Subject to “Physical Loss or Damage”?, Insurance Law Group, 2001
47- Matthew E. Haber , Computer network attack and the Laws of Armed Conflict.
48- Meron, Teodor, Notes and Comments on the Inadeqate Reach of Humanitarian and Human Rights Law and the Need for a New Instrument,AJIL, 1983.
49- Matthew E. Haber , Computer network attack and the Laws of Armed Conflict.
50- M.Rau, “State Liability for Violation of International Humanitarian law” , Max planck institu for Comparative law and public International law, German law Journal ,Vol. 7, No. 7,2004.
51- Malagar, Leo B.;Magdoza-Malagar,Marlo Apalisok,“International Law of Outer Space and the Protection of Intellectual Property Rights”, Boston University, International Law Journal, fall, 1999.
52- Nolte, Gorge, Complicity and the Law of State Responsibility, Cambridge University Press, 2011.
53- Nys, “Development and Formation of International Law” (ptsand II) 6 Am. J. International Law, 1912.
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55- Olleson, S,” The Impact of the ILC’s Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts, British Institute of International and Comparative Law,2013.
56- Olleson, S,” New State Responsibility Rules and Compliance With Multilateral Obligations, Australian Yearbook of International Law, Vol.22, 2003.
57- Rosenzweig, Paul , A Taxonomy of Cyber War IHL Questions, 2014.
58- Smith. B. D,” State Responsibility and Principle of Joint and Several Liability,10 Yale Journal of International Law, Vol.13,1998.
59- Sanger, David E., “Obama Order Sped Up Wave of Cyberattacks
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60- Sklerov, Matthew J., “Solving the Dilemma of State Response to Cyberattacks: A Justification for the Use of Active Defenses against States Who Neglect their Duty to Prevent”, Military Law Review, Vol. 201, 2009.
61- Sharp, Walter Gary, sr., Cyberspace and the use of force, Falls Church,1999.
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65- Sultana, Ireen, Sobhan , M. Abdus,Creation of Cross Border Cyber Laws to Combat Cyber Warfare at Regional and Global Levels, Daffodil International University, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2012.
66- Schmitt, Michael, “Computer network attack and the use of force in international law: thoughts on a normative framework”, Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 37, 1999.
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68- Sorokin, Gerald L. , Arms, Alliances, and Security Tradeoffs in Deuring Rivalries , International Studies Quarterly,No. 38, March, 1994.
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C) International Instruments

1- Advisory Opinion on the Threat or use of Nuclear Weapons, Para:34.
2- “Case concerning Military and Paramilitary Activities in and against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v. United States of America)”, Judgment of 27 June 1986, (1986) I.C.J. Rep. 14, par. 191,195.
3- Advisory Opinion of 9 July 2004,( Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory) ICJ Reports 2004.
4- Annual Report of International of Red Cross , No.298 , January – February 1994.
5- Anglo-Norwegian Fisheries case, p 131/19.
6- Article 3(2) of United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, Singed 15 november 2000, entered into force on 29 September 2003.
7- Advance Questions for Lieutenant General Keith Alexander, USA Nominee for Commander, United States Cyber Command’, 2010.
8- BILC,1980.
9- Basic Principles and Guidelines, 2005.
10- Basic principles and Guidelines on The Right to a Remedy and Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights Law and serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Adopted and proclaimed by General Assembly Resolution 60/147, 2005.
11- Cyprus v. Turkey,Judgment, No.25781/94,European Court of Human Rights,2001,Para.77.
12- Chorzow Factory Case,( Germany V. Poland) PCIJ Reports, Merit ,Judgment, 1928.
13- Cyber Security Strategy of the United Kingdom – Cabinet Office
14- CyberSecurity Strategy of the United Kingdom safety, security and resilience in cyber space
15- Convention on International Civil Aviation, 61 Stat. 1180, [hereinafter Chicago Convention], 1944.
16- Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Civil Aviation, 24 U.S.T. 564 [hereinafter Montreal Convention],1971.
17- Crawford,James,The International Law Commission’s Articles on State Responsibility: Introduction, Text and Commentaries, Cambridge University Press, 2002.
18- Convention on cyber crime.council of Europe.(2001), http://conventions.coe.int/treaty/en/treatys/html/185.html.
19- Distomo Case:
Rau,Markus , State Liability for Violation of International Humanitarian law , the Distomo Case , German law journal , vo1.o7,No,07,2005.
20- Draft Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts Adopted at 2001.
21- Draft Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts in Report of ILC on the work of Its fifty-third Session, 2001.
22- Declaration on Principles of International Law Concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation Among States in Accordance with the Charter of the United Nations,G.A. Res:2625,1970.
23- General Assembly Resolution, 56/83, Para,3, Dec, 12, 2001.
24- Gerhard, W, Principles of International Criminal Law, T.M.C Asser Press, Hague, 2005.
25- G.A Resolution: 3281,1974,”The Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States”.
26- General Assembly Resolution on Principles of International Law Concerning Friendly Relations and Co- Operation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, 2625(XXV), 24 Oct.1970.
27- ICRC, Weapons that May Cause Unnecessary Suffering or Have Indiscriminate Effects: Report On the Work of Experts, Geneva, 1973.
28- ICRC, Anti
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29- ICRC, Draft Rules for Limitation of Dangers by the Civilian Population in Time of War,Art. 14,1956.
30- ICTY ,Prosecutor V. Anto Furundzija, Case no: IT-95-17/1-T.
31- ICTR, Prosecutor V. Jean Paul Akayesu, Case no:ICTR-96-4-T.
32- ICRC , Improving Compliance With International Humanitarian Law , Background paper Prepared for Informed High –Level Expert Meeting on Current Challenges to International Humanitarian Law , Cambridge , June, 2004.
33- I.C.J., Corfu Channel (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland v. Albania), Merits, separate opinion by Judge Alvarez, 1949.
34- I.C.T.Y., Prosecutor v. Tadic, Case No. IT-94-1-A, I.C.T.Y. App. Ch., 1999.
35- ICTY, The Prosecutor v. Dusko Tadic Decision on the Defense motion for interlocutory appeal on jurisdiction 2 October 1995 , IT-94-1-AR 72, Para. 70, p.37.
36- ICTY, The Prosecutor v. Dusko Tadic Decision on the Defense motion for interlocutory appeal on jurisdiction 2 October 1995 , IT-94-1-AR 72, Para. 119.
37- Kuperskic Case, ICTY Judgment.
38- Kostadinov, Dimitar, “Attribution in Cyber Attacks”,2015.
39- Kalshoven ,F, State Responsibility for War Acts of the Armed Forces-From Article 3 of Hague Convention IV to Article 91 of Additional Protocol I of 1977 and Beyand,I.C.L.Q,1991.
40- Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in Occupied Palestinian Territory.
41- North Sea Continental Shelf, para 174.
42- Nuclear Weapons Case , I.C.J Reports ,1996.
43- Nicaragua Case.
44- Namibia Case , ICJ Reports , 1971.
45- Nicaragua case, para 228 and World Wide Warfare – Jus ad bellum and the Use of Cyber Force, Roscini, p 106.
46- Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts of Violence at Airports Serving International Civil Aviation, Feb. 24, 1589 U.N.T.S. 474 [hereinafter Montreal Protocol], 1988.
47- Quigley .J.K, Transnational States Responsibility for Violations of International Law, Australian Journal of International Law , vol . 226, 2006.
48- S/RES/1368 (2001) 12 September and S/RES/1373 (2001) 28 September.
49- The Convention and its

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