selection of first grade high school book and Let’s Go including world celebrities, news, sports, environmental issues which was presented by the language teacher.And finally a post test of listening comprehension was administered to both groups to assess the effectiveness of the treatment program.
A 50 -item language proficiency test of oxford placement test (Edwards 2007) was administered to 60 EFL subjects. The purpose of using such a test was to measure the learners’ proficiency level. So those whose scores were above 35 selected as intermediate learners and participated in this study. Having being homogenized by an OPT test they were divided into two groups, experimental and control. It should be noted that each group includes 22. Then both groups participated for a pre test of listening. The purpose of such a test was to measure the participants’ initial subject knowledge of listening comprehension ability. The test selected from 4 tracks of the book Let’s Go. The listening pre test included 20 multiple choice items designed for intermediate EFL learners for both pre test and post test. The time allocated for listening comprehension pre test was 20 minutes. Then the experimental group received treatment based on slow speech rate while the control group received no treatment and approached the same existing method of teaching listening (normal). During the task treatment participants listened to the text with slow speech rate and answered to the listening questions. This treatment inserted a three-second pause at the end of each idea unit in three texts, using a computer sound. Editing was also applied in the same way to the repetition of the texts. The choice of the pause length is based on Blau’s(1991) and Ishler’s(2010) recommendations concerning the reasonable duration of longer than normal pauses. Pauses that are longer than three seconds were reported to have caused the listeners to lose track and to feel bored. The whole project took for seven sessions once a week, each session for 45 minutes. Finally the post test of listening comprehension was administered to both groups to assess and explore the significant effect of slow speech rate on the specific treatment program.
۳.۵ Methods of analyzing data
The data will be computed through SPSS, an one way ANCOVA will be powerful enough to handle the significant of the study if there is any.
This chapter provided the details of the methodology of the current study. First, there was introduction and purpose of the study as supporting evidence to the existence of the problem stated in this study was elaborated on. Second, the design of the study which was selected to be representative of the empirical dimensions was described. Third, the characteristics of the participants of the study as well as the material and the procedures of conducting the experiment and the treatment were discussed. The scoring procedures and the data analysis methods were further elaborated regarding the nature of the hypotheses of the study. The quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS for statistical significance of variance.
The previous chapter provided the explanation of the research design, instrumentation, data collection, and data analysis methodology. The main aim of this study was to explore whether an experimental application of the effect of speech rate (slow) on Iranian Intermediate EFL learners’ listening comprehension. In this chapter, I will discuss the research questions and hypotheses related to this problem. The mean scores of both the experimental and control group will be used to verify or reject the research hypotheses. In addition, a t-test and a one way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) will be applied to see whether the differences were significant or not. The computer program called SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) will be used since it has been admitted by many researchers in the field as being the best program used for the analysis of results.
۴.۱. Data analysis and findings
To answer the research question of the present research, the gathered data were analyzed in the following way: The data obtained from testing the hypothesis of the study were analyzed via calculating a t-test between the posttest scores of the experimental and the control groups of the study and the one-way ANCOVA (Analysis of Covariance) between the pretest and the posttests of the experimental and the control group of the study. Such analysis was done using the SPSS software. Table (4.5) shows the descriptive analysis for the pretest and the posttest of listening comprehension in the experimental group of the study: This study was experimental in nature and focused on the effect of slow speech rate on Iranian Intermediate EFL learners’ listening comprehension. The resulting data that was in hand for analysis consisted of an OPT test, listening scores (pre-and post test), and T-TEST. After scoring the test, the results were statistically analyzed to provide answer to the research question. The researcher used SPSS
۴.۱.۱. Descriptive Analysis of the Data
To answer the research question of the research the following were employed: descriptive analysis (mean and standard deviation), inferential analysis, T-test and one way covariance (ANCOVA). Before conducting ANCOVA its hypotheses were defined to prove its effectiveness.
۱: Existence of linear relationship between pre and posttest, which is calculated by analyzing the distribution between each couple of variables.
۲: Equality of variance
۳: Equality of regression
Table 4.1 indicates the existence of linear relationship between pre and post test.
Figure4.1. level of listening comprehension in both groups (experimental, control)
As the table indicates there is linear relationship between pre and posttest. Because regression lines are parallel. It means the relation between both groups is alike. The degree of correlation between dependent variables is indicated in table 4.1.
۰/۰۰۹۳۳۷ listening comprehension (PRETEST)
P*۰/۵ listening comprehension (POSTTEST)
As the table indicates here, there are meaningful correlations between pre and post test. So, conducting ANCOVA is reasonable. The descriptive analysis of pre and post test and results of T-TEST in experimental group and control group is indicated in table 4.2 and 4.3.
Table4. 2. Descriptive analysis of pre and posttest in both groups
As table indicates there is difference between mean of control group and mean of experimental group in pre-test and post test, which is meaningful )F(1,28)=15/287 , p=0/001).
Table4.3.The results of T-TEST to examine the differences between pre and
post test in control and experimental group
Std. Error Mean
As table indicates there is difference between mean of control group and mean of experimental group in pre-test and post test, which is meaningful. It means there is a difference between results of pre and post tests in control and experimental group.
Table 4.4. Mean and adjusted means of listening comprehension test in post test
Source posttest adjusted mean
M SD M SE
Experimental 16.87 1.885 16.741a .213
control 8.73 1.335 8.859a .213
This table indicates adjusted means of listening comprehension in post test. It means the effect of pre test is eliminated. These means indicate that mean in experimental group is higher than mean in control group. listening comprehension covariance with elimination of mutual effect in both control and experimental group is indicated in table 4.5.
Table4.5.listening comprehension covariance in both groups
Sum of Squares
.۶۷۹ . ۶۷۸
As the table indicates the degree of “F” is statistically meaningful (F (1,77)= 679/678, P=./000,Eta=./962) that indicates in terms of listening comprehension there are meaningful difference between experimental and control