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Explanatory Report was adopted by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on 8 November 2001. It was opened for signature in Budapest, on 23 november 2001 and it has entered into force on 1 July 2004. Significantly, Russia and China never sign it.
52- Tallinn Manual. Chapter II, Section 1, Rule 11 commentaries and for further reading on Schmitt’s test: Computer Network Attack and Use of Force in International Law, Schmitt and The Law of Information Conflict, Wingfield.
53- Tallinn Manual, Chapter II, Section 2, Rule 13 and para 3, 10 and Chapter II, Rule 11, para :1.
54- The Report of the USA President’s Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection , October 13, 1997
55- Tallinn Manual, Chapter II, Rule 10, para 6-10 and Computer Network Attack and the Use of Force in International Law, Schmitt.
56- Turns, David, Weapons in the ICRC Study on Customary International Humanitarian Law, Journal of Conflict & Security Law. Vol. 11, No.2, 2006.
57- UN Security Council Res . 1071 ,30 August 1996.
58- United Nation Yearbook International Law Commission (U N Y. I. L.C), 2001.
59- UN Commission on Human Rights/ Res. 1998/ 70.21 April 1998.
60- United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Comprehensive Study on Cybercrime, United Nations, Vienna, 2013.
61- United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Comprehensive Study on Cybercrime, United Nations, Vienna, 2013.
62- UN, S/C3/32/Rev. 1, CF. UN Study on Conventional Disarmament, New York, 1985.
63- U.N,Y.B.I.L.C,2001.
64- United States’ Defense Information Systems Agency (U.S. DISA).
65- Verhoven, Chand.L, and Others, Mens’s Inhumanity to Man, The Hogue: Kluwer Law International, 3Eds,2013.
66- Y .B .I .L .C , 1978.

D) Web Sites

1- http://www.defense.gov/home/features/2010/0410_cybersec.
2- http://news.techworld.com/security/3362243/stuxnet-details-leakedto-boost-obama-alleges-mccain
3- http://www.icrc.org/web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/3e02cd6224ce0af 6012568b20048a62f /e4e4a03de3be1211c1256bf90033 2f62/$file/365_400_schmitt.pdf
4- http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Infrastructure
5- www.law freblog.com/2015/05/tallin2.
6- www. Internationallaw .ir
7- http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/01/world/middleeast/obama-ordered-wave-of-cyberattacks-against-iran.html?pagewanted=1and_r=3andseid=autoandsmid=tw-nytimestechand.
8- http://www.lawfareblog.com/2014/07.
9- http://opiniojuris.org/2011/01/25/could-deploying-stuxnet-be-a-war-crime.
10- www.carlisle.army.mil/…/UK%20Cyber%20Security%20Strategy/ 1391/1/23.pdf.
www.official-documents.gov.uk /document/cm76/7642/7642.pdf.
11- http://www.number10.gov.uk/news/uk–france-summit-2010-declaration-on-defenceand-security.
12- http://irtt.ir/index.php/strategic-studies/strategic-studies/173-1391-02-20-15-00-27.html.
13- http://www.atlcom.nl/site/english/nieuws/wp-content/Hughes.pdf.
14- http://www.defense.gov/home/features/2010/0410_cybersec.
15- www.dadgostary-tehran.ir/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket
16- http://www.armenpars.com/2014/02/01.
17- http://www.icrc.org/web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/html/5p2alj.
18- http://www.atlcom.nl/site/english/nieuws/wp-content/Hughes.pdf.http://www.icrc.org/web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/3e02cd6224ce0af6012568b20048a62f/e4e4a03de3be1211c1256bf900332f62/$file/365_400_schmitt.pdf
19- http://ebrat.ir/?part=news&inc=news&id=33612.
20- http://www.itu.int/en/wcit-12/Documents/final-acts-wcit-12.pdf.
21- www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/media/216620/css0906.pdf.
22- www.senate.gov/statement/2010/04/April/Alexander 04-15-10.pdf, pp:19-24.
23- http://www.defense.gov/news/d20110714cyber.pdf.
24- http://forum.p30world.com.
25- http://www.kayhannews.ir/910508/12.htm.
26- http://www.psyop.ir/?p=13343.
27- http://www.defense.gov/home/features/2011/0111_nsss//jan2011.
28- http://www.gafele.blogsky.com/1389/07/10/post-110.
29- http://www.magiran.com/npview.asp?ID=2514187/91/3/31.
30- http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/topic/International-TelecommunicationUnion/news.
31- www.internationallaw.ir
32- http://www.dsrc.ir/View/article.aspx?id=1128 .
33- www.theregister.co.uk/2007/10/04/radar_hack_raid/.
34- http://www.theregister.co.uk
35- http://www.idsco.ir/Cyber-maneuver-America-and-Britain#sthash.WtN1aOZW.dpuf.
36- http://www.cyberbannews.com
37- http://www.cyberbannews.com
38- http://roobahnews.com/index.php/component/content/article/8550.
39- http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/RESOLUTION/GEN/NR0/348/90/IMG/NR034890.pdf?OpenElement
40- http://www.un.org/documents/ http://www.farsnews.com/newstext.php?nn=8908171543#sthash. WVaESQcI.dpuf
41- www.ihs.gov/misc/links_gateway/download.cfm?doc_id=327&app_dir_id =4&doc_file=PCCIP_Report.pdf
42- http://p-c.persianblog.ir/post/77.
43- www.irandoc.ac.ir/Data/E_J/vol4/nakhoda_aran.htm, visited on:5-3-2008.
44- www.irandoc.ac.ir/Data/E_J/vol4/nakhoda_aran.htm, visited on:5-3-2008.
45- www.irandoc.ac.ir/Data/E_J/vol4/nakhoda_aran.htm.
46- http://old.ictpress.ir/Default,fa- IR,ICTPress,Content,NewsDetail,Key,20437.aspx
47- http://www.farsnews.com/newstext.php?nn=8908171543#sthash. WVaESQcI.dpuf
48- http://www.adsearch.ir/show.aspx?ad=t_14047
49- http://www.itc.ir.
50- http://www.usafa.edu/df/iita/Documents/Schmitt1.pdf
51- http://cgsc.cdmhost.com/cgi-bin/ showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/p4013coll2&CISOPTR=274&filename=275.pdf
52- http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=130023318.

According to the definition provided in this study, the concept of ‘Cyber Attack’ , new kind of cyber attack is the use of cyberspace in international relations that he highly talented creating fundamental changes in the field of modern conflicts, and that’s why the international community has created a new challenge ,and because of the increasing dependency on cyberspace governmental organizations, on the other hand the implementation of these operations is much easier for attackers and on the other hand, deal with such attacks, the government has a lot of technical and legal problems.
For this reason, despite the potential cyber attacks capable of lethal and cause severe damage, that “Are the rules of International Humanitarian Law applicable to cyber attacks or not?”, International law has become a major challenge.
The study aimed to evaluate the rules of international humanitarian law, also examined the comments for and against and finally to the conclusion that most lawyers think, however, that these provisions do not cover all the cyber war and cyber attack.
However, due to the philosophy of humanitarian law, protect the civilian population and other principles such as the principle of proportionality and distinction considering, therefore, the rules still apply, and where there are no rules of customary international humanitarian law and principles such as the need to invoke ‘Martens Clause’ and the particular situation and implement international humanitarian law applied.
But due to lack of unity of the international community and the ambiguity of the implementation of these principles and rules, revised the current rules under a convention or international treaty, is required.

Key Words: Cyberspace, Computer Networks, Cyber Operations, Cyber Attacks, Jus ad bellum, Self Defense,
The Law of Armed Conflicts, International Humanitarian Law, Jus in bello, Di
stinction, Proportionality.

Payame Noor University
Thesis Submitted for the Award of Ph.D
Department of Law
International Humanitarian Law
Cyber Attacks

Supervisor :
Dr. Ali Reza Hojjatzadeh

Advisor 1:
Dr. Pouria Askari

Advisor 2:
Dr. Mohammad Taghi Rezaee

By :
Afshin Jafari
August 2015

1- Sputnik.
2- United states’ Department of Defence (DOD).
3- Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA).
4- ARPAnet.

6 – خلیق، غلامرضا، رایانه کار ، انتشارات سازمان آموزش فنی و حرفه ای کشور، تهران، 1385، صص: 12-8.
7 – NIC- Network Interface Card.
8 – Transmission Medium.
9 – Network Operating System.
10 – Server.
11 – خلیق،غلامرضا ؛پيشين ؛ صص:14-12.
12 – Peer- to- Peer.
13 – Server- Based.
14 – Client Server.
15 – Star Topology.
16 – Concentrator.
هاب ( Hub ) یک قطعه سخت‌افزاری است که برای اتصال ایستگاه‌های کاری به شبکه که معمولاً شبکه‌های محلی می‌باشند مورد استفاده واقع می‌گردد. هاب معمولاً دارای چند درگاه ورودی و خروجی است که اطلاعات از طریق آن‌ها می‌تواند به هاب وارد و یا خارج گردد. با ورود یک بسته اطلاعاتی به یک درگاه، این اطلاعات به صورت خودکار در سایر در گاه ها نیز کپی می‌گردد تا تمامی ایستگاه‌های شبکه آن را مشاهده، و در صورت لزوم آن را دریافت نمایند.
17 – Ring Topology.
18 – International Business Machine,(IBM).
19- Bus Topology.
20- Mesh Topology.
21 – Local Area Network, (LAN).
22 – Metropolitan Area Network,(MAN).
23 – Wide Area Network,(WAN).
24 – خلیق،غلامرضا ؛ پيشين ؛ ص:15.
25- Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN).
26 – International Network.
27 – IP.
28 – ICTPRESS,13/6/2015.
29 – visited on : http://old.ictpress.ir/Default,fa-IR,ICTPress,Content,NewsDetail,Key,20437.aspx , 11/6/2015.
30 – NET.
34 – باطنی، ا، یزدان شناس، م.، نگاهی به فرآیند شکل‌گیری دولت الکترونیک وچالش‌های فراروی آن. مجله‌ی فقه و حقوق، شماره‌ی 9، 1385، ص:15.
35 – الوانی، م، یعقوبی، ن.،مدیریت دولتی و دولت الکترونیک. مجله‌ی فرهنگ مدیریت، شماره‌ی 3، 1382،صص:10-9.
36 – شهسوار، م، دهقان، ف.،دولت الکترونیک و نقش آن در اقتصاد. مجله‌ی اقتصادی، شماره-‌های 43 و 44،1384، ص:5.
37 – باطنی، ا، یزدان شناس، م.، پیشین.
38 –

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